Pakistan is a Federal Republic and is known as the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. It came into existence on 14th August, 1947. The territories of Pakistan comprise the provinces of Punjab,Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan, the Islamabad Capital Territory i.e. the Federal Capital, the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATAs) and such states and territories as are or may be included in Pakistan whether by accession or otherwise. It has a population of approximate 170 Million and a territory spread over 7,96,096 square kilometers.
Election Commission came into being on 23rd day of March, 1956 when the Second Constituent Assembly succeeded in framing and adopting the first Constitution of Islamic Republic of Pakistan in 1956. Article 137 of the Constitution provided for the Election Commission comprising Chief Election Commissioner/Chairman of the Commission and such number of Election Commissioners as may be determined by the President. First Chief Election Commissioner was appointed on 25th June, 1956. The term of office of the Chief Election Commissioner was five years with upper age limit of 65 years. Election Commission was charged with duties of preparation of electoral rolls, their annual revision and organising and conducting elections to Assemblies. This Constitution provided for election to National and Provincial assemblies on the adult franchise basis. A separate institution ‘Delimitation Commission’ was also provided for delimitation of constituencies.
In 1958, Martial Law was imposed and the Constitution was abrogated. Consequently, the Election Commission also ceased to exist. Another Constitution was adopted in 1962, which provided for election of members of National and Provincial Assemblies through electoral college consisting of 80,000 Basic Democracy Members. This time Chief Election Commissioner was to be appointed by the President of Pakistan for a term of three years. Chief Election Commissioner enjoyed perks and privileges of a Judge of the Supreme Court. The Commission had two Members, one each from West and East Pakistan, who were Judges of their respective High Courts. After abrogation of 1962 Constitution in 1969, the Election Commission continued working on the basis of the "Provisional Constitution Order"
The 1973 Constitution provided for an Election Commission consisting of Chairman/Chief Election Commissioner and two Members, who were to be Judges of High Courts. The number of Members of the Election Commission was later raised to four. The 18th Amendment to the Constituion has provided more consultative process of appointment of the Chief Election Commissioner and four Members of the Commission. Their appointment is now to be made on the recommendation of a Joint Parliamentary Committee consisting of twelve members of the Senate and the National Assembly belonging equally to the Government and the Opposition. Members have to be former Judges of High Courts of the Provinces.